We’re at a critical moment. Our leaders, some of our great institutions are failing us. Why? In some cases, it’s because they’re bad or unethical, but often, they’ve taken us to the wrong objectives. And this is unacceptable. This has to stop. How are we going to correct these wrongs? How are we going to choose the right course? It’s not going to be easy.
For years, I’ve worked with talented teams and they’ve chosen the right objectives and the wrong objectives. Many have succeeded, others of them have failed. And today I’m going to share with you what really makes a difference — that’s what’s crucial, how and why they set meaningful and audacious goals, the right goals for the right reasons.
多年来，我和一些有才华的团队一起工作，他们选过正确的目标，也选错过。很数人成功了，也有人失败了。今天，我想和你们分享一下，到底是什么引起这种不同 —— 这很重要，他们是如何设置有意义又大胆的目标的，为什么他们能做到，正确的目标背后是正确的原因。
Let’s go back to 1975. Yep, this is me. I’ve got a lot to learn, I’m a computer engineer, I’ve got long hair, but I’m working under Andy Grove, who’s been called the greatest manager of his or any other era. Andy was a superb leader and also a teacher, and he said to me, “John, it almost doesn’t matter what you know. Execution is what matters the most.” And so Andy invented a system called “Objectives and Key Results.” It kind of rolls off the tongue, doesn’t it? And it’s all about excellent execution. So here’s a classic video from the 1970s of professor Andy Grove.
让我们回到 1975。不错，这是我。我还有很多东西要学，我是个计算机工程师，我留了一头长发，但是我在安迪・葛洛夫（Andy Grove 英特尔公司前 CEO）手下工作，他被称为他那个时代或其他任何时代最伟大的经理人。安迪是个非常棒的领导，也是个好老师，他曾告诉我，“约翰，你会什么不重要，执行才是最重要的。” 所以安迪发明了一个系统，叫做 “目标和关键成果”。有点儿绕口，对吗？这个系统讲的全都是优秀的执行力。这是安迪・葛洛夫教授 1970 年上课时的录像。
(Video) Andy Grove: The two key phrases of the management by objective systems are the objectives and the key results, and they match the two purposes. The objective is the direction. The key results have to be measured, but at the end you can look and without any argument say, “Did I do that, or did I not do that?” Yes. No. Simple.
（视频）安迪・葛洛夫：在目标系统中，管理的两个关键项是目标和关键成果，它们互为因果。目标就是方向。要估量关键成果，但最后你可以回看，并不含争议地说出 “我做了吗，或者我没做吗” 是，或者，不是，很简单。
John Doerr: That’s Andy. Yes. No. Simple. Objectives and Key Results, or OKRs, are a simple goal-setting system and they work for organizations, they work for teams, they even work for individuals. The objectives are what you want to have accomplished. The key results are how I’m going to get that done. Objectives. Key results. What and how. But here’s the truth: many of us are setting goals wrong, and most of us are not setting goals at all. A lot of organizations set objectives and meet them. They ship their sales, they introduce their new products, they make their numbers, but they lack a sense of purpose to inspire their teams.
John Doerr（演讲者）：这就是安迪。是，或者，不是，很简单。目标和关键成果，或者简略为 OKR，是一种简单的目标设定系统，其对组织，团队甚至个人都行之有效。目标就是你想要完成的东西。关键成果就是我将怎么达成目标。目标。关键成果。什么和怎么。但事实是，我们很多人设置了错误的目标。他们营销产品，介绍新产品，增大销售量，但缺乏激励团队的目的感。
So how do you set these goals the right way? First, you must answer the question, “Why?” Why? Because truly transformational teams combine their ambitions to their passion and to their purpose, and they develop a clear and compelling sense of why.
那么要怎样正确设定目标呢？首先，你必须问一个问题 “为什么？” 为什么？因为真正转换的团队把他们的野心结合了激情和目的，然后对为什么生出清晰和强烈的感觉。
I want to tell you a story. I work with a remarkable entrepreneur. Her name is Jini Kim. She runs a company called Nuna. Nuna is a health care data company. And when Nuna was founded, they used data to serve the health needs of lots of workers at large companies. And then two years into the company’s life, the federal government issued a proposal to build the first ever cloud database for Medicaid. Now, you’ll remember that Medicaid is that program that serves 70 million Americans, our poor, our children and people with disabilities. Nuna at the time was just 15 people and this database had to be built in one year, and they had a whole set of commitments that they had to honor, and frankly, they weren’t going to make very much money on the project. This was a bet-your-company moment, and Jini seized it. She jumped at the opportunity. She did not flinch. Why? Well, it’s a personal why. Jini’s younger brother Kimong has autism. And when he was seven, he had his first grand mal seizure at Disneyland. He fell to the ground. He stopped breathing. Jini’s parents are Korean immigrants. They came to the country with limited resources speaking little English, so it was up to Jini to enroll her family in Medicaid. She was nine years old. That moment defined her mission, and that mission became her company, and that company bid on, won and delivered on that contract. Here’s Jini to tell you why.
我想和你们讲个故事。我和一个卓越的企业家一起工作，她的名字叫 Jini Kim。她经营的公司叫 Nuna（医疗保健类）。Nuna 是一家医疗数据公司。成立的时候，他们使用数据为大型公司的大批有健康方面需求的员工提供服务。两年后，联邦政府发布了一份提案，要建立首个用于医疗补助计划的云数据库。现在，你想一下，医疗补助计划是为包括穷人，儿童和残疾人在内的 7000 万美国人服务的。那个时候，Nuna 只有 15 个人，而这个数据库必须在一年内建好，他们有一系列的承诺，必须有荣耀感，坦率地说，这个项目赚不到什么钱。这就是拿公司做赌的时刻，Jini 抓住了它。她抓住了这个机会。她没有退缩。为什么？好吧，这个原因很私人。Jini 的弟弟 Kimong 患有自闭症。他当时只有七岁，在迪士尼第一次癫痫大发作。他们移民到这个国家时，资产有限，会的英语也不多，所以 Jini 要负责让她的家庭进入医疗补助计划。她当时只有九岁。那一刻定义了她的使命，这个使命变成了她的公司，然后这个公司中标，赢得并交付了合约。这就是 Jini 的为什么。
(Video) Jini Kim: Medicaid saved my family from banzhekruptcy, and today it provides for Kimong’s health and for millions of others. Nuna is my love letter to Medicaid. Every row of data is a life whose story deserves to be told with dignity.
（视频）Jini Kim：医疗补助计划把我的家庭从破产中解救了出来，今天它为 Kimong 还有数百万其他人都提供了帮助。Nuna 就是我给这个计划的情书。每一行数据就是值得带着敬意讲述的生命。
JD: And Jini’s story tells us that a compelling sense of why can be the launchpad for our objectives. Remember, that’s what we want to have accomplished. And objectives are significant, they’re action-oriented, they are inspiring, and they’re a kind of vaccine against fuzzy thinking. You think a rockstar would be an unlikely user of Objectives and Key Results, but for years, Bono has used OKRs to wage a global war against poverty and disease, and his ONE organization has focused on two really gorgeous, audacious objectives. The first is debt relief for the poorest countries in the world. The next is universal access to anti-HIV drugs. Now, why are these good objectives? Let’s go back to our checklist. Significant? Check. Concrete? Yes. Action-oriented? Yes. Inspirational? Well, let’s just listen to Bono.
JD：Jini 的故事告诉我们，对 “为什么” 的强烈情感可以是目标发射台。记住，这是我们想要达成的东西。而目标是显著的，行动导向的，鼓舞人心的，是模糊思维的疫苗。你以为摇滚明星不可能用到 “目标和关键成果”，但是多年来，Bono（波诺，著名摇滚乐队 U2 的主创和主唱）一直用 OKR 法来对抗全球贫穷和疾病，他的慈善组织 “one” 专注于两个华丽无畏的目标。一个是减轻世界最穷国家的债务，另一个是普及抗艾滋药物。为什么是这两个目标？回到我们的清单，显著的，打勾，具体的，打勾，行动导向的，打勾，鼓舞人心的？让我们听听 Bono 是怎么说的。
(Video) Bono: So you’re passionate? How passionate? What actions does your passion lead you to do? If the heart doesn’t find a perfect rhyme with the head, then your passion means nothing. The OKR framework cultivates the madness, the chemistry contained inside it. It gives us an environment for risk, for trust, where failing is not a fireable offense. And when you have that sort of structure and environment and the right people, magic is around the corner.
JD: I love that. OKRs cultivate the madness, and magic is right around the corner. This is perfect.
So with Jini we’ve covered the whys, with Bono the whats of goal-setting. Let’s turn our attention to the hows. Remember, the hows are the key results. That’s how we meet our objectives. And good results are specific and time-bound. They’re aggressive but realistic. They’re measurable, and they’re verifiable. Those are good key results.
那么 Jini 的故事中，我们讲了为什么，Bono 的讲了设置目标。现在说说怎么做。记的吗，怎么做就是关键成果。我们如何达成目标。好的成果是具体的，有时限的，是带风险的又是现实的，是可衡量，可验证的。这些才是好的关键成果。
In 1999, I introduced OKRs to Google’s cofounders, Larry and Sergey. Here they are, 24 years old in their garage. And Sergey enthusiastically said he’d adopt them. Well, not quite. What he really said was, “We don’t have any other way to manage this company, so we’ll give it a go.”
1999 年，我将 OKRs 法介绍给谷歌的共同创始人 Larry（拉里・佩奇）和 Sergey（谢尔盖・布林）。这就是他们，24 岁，在车库里。Sergey 热情地说想收养他们。当然，不完全是这样。他的原话是，“我们没有别的方法管理公司，所以只能放手一搏。”
And I took that as a kind of endorsement. But every quarter since then, every Googler has written down her objectives and her key results. They’ve graded them, and they’ve published them for everyone to see. And these are not used for bonuses or for promotions. They’re set aside. They’re used for a higher purpose, and that’s to get collective commitment to truly stretch goals.
In 2008, a Googler, Sundar Pichai, took on an objective which was to build the next generation client platform for the future of web applications — in other words, build the best browser. He was very thoughtful about how he chose his key results. How do you measure the best browser? It could be ad clicks or engagement. No. He said: numbers of users, because users are going to decide if Chrome is a great browser or not. So he had this one three-year-long objective: build the best browser. And then every year he stuck to the same key results, numbers of users, but he upped the ante. In the first year, his goal was 20 million users and he missed it. He got less than 10. Second year, he raised the bar to 50 million. He got to 37 million users. Somewhat better. In the third year, he upped the ante once more to a hundred million. He launched an aggressive marketing campaign, broader distribution, improved the technology, and kaboom! He got 111 million users.
2008 年，一个谷歌人，Sundar Pichai（桑达尔・皮查伊）定下了为网站应用的未来构建新一代客户平台，换句话说，就是建个最好的浏览器。对于如何选择关键成果，他有很多想法。用什么衡量最好的浏览器呢？可能是广告点击次数或者互动。不。他说：是用户的数量，因为只有用户才能决定 Chrome 是不是一个好浏览器。因此他设了个三年期目标：建个最好的浏览器。然后每年，他都坚持这个关键成果，用户数 量，只是不断提高要求。第一年，他的目标是 2000 万用户，没达成。还不到 10 万。第二年，他提高到 5000 万，结果是 3700 万。好了点。第三年，他再次把要求提高到了一亿。通过发起雄心勃勃的营销活动，广阔分配，改进技术，砰！他有了 1.11 亿用户。
Here’s why I like this story, not so much for the happy ending, but it shows someone carefully choosing the right objective and then sticking to it year after year after year. It’s a perfect story for a nerd like me.
Now, I think of OKRs as transparent vessels that are made from the whats and hows of our ambitions. What really matters is the why that we pour into those vessels. That’s why we do our work. OKRs are not a silver bullet. They’re not going to be a substitute for a strong culture or for stronger leadership, but when those fundamentals are in place, they can take you to the mountaintop.
如今，我认为 OKR 是由我们野心的目标和手段构成的透明容器。重要的是我们为什么要浇灌这些容器。这也是为什么我们要工作。OKR 不是银子弹，不能作为强力文化或强力领导的替代品，但如果这些基本要素都在合适位置，它们能带你登顶。
I want you to think about your life for a moment. Do you have the right metrics? Take time to write down your values, your objectives and your key results. Do it today. If you’d like some feedback on them, you can send them to me. I’m firstname.lastname@example.org.
If we think of the world-changing goals of an Intel, of a Nuna, of Bono, of Google, they’re remarkable: ubiquitous computing, affordable health care, high-quality for everyone, ending global poverty, access to all the world’s information. Here’s the deal: every one of those goals is powered today by OKRs.
想想 Intel，Nuna，Bono，Google 这些改变世界的目标，他们是非凡的：无处不在的计算，负担得起的医疗，为所有人提供高品质生活，结束世界贫困，可以接触到世界上所有信息。事情就是这样：今天，这些目标的每个人都用 OKR 获取力量。
Now, I’ve been called the Johnny Appleseed of OKRs for spreading the good gospel according to Andy Grove, but I want you to join me in this movement. Let’s fight for what it is that really matters, because we can take OKRs beyond our businesses. We can take them to our families, to our schools, even to our governments. We can hold those governments accountable. We can transform those informations. We can get back on the right track if we can and do measure what really matters.
现在，人们都叫我 Johnny Appleseed，因为我一直传播 Andy Grove 的福音，希望你们也能加入这项活动。为真正重要的奋斗，因为 OKR 不仅应用于商业，在家庭中，学校里，甚至是政府里，都可以用。我们可以让政府负其责来。我们可以传递这些信息。我们可以回到正确的轨道，如果我们能衡量出什么才是真正重要的。
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